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StructureLocationFunctions
Hindbrain
(
Reptilian Brain)
  
Medullaat the top of the spinal cordMedulla controls breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.
Ponshind brain Pons regulates sensory information and facial expressions.
Cerebellumat the lower rearcontrols movement, coordination, balance, muscle tone, and learning motor skills.
Reticular Formationa network of nerves extends from the medulla to the cerebrummonitors the general level of activity in the hindbrain and maintains a state of arousal; essential for the regulation of sleep and wakefulness.
Midbrain (superior & inferior colliculus)above the pons between the hindbrain and forebrainrelays sensory information from the spinal cord to the forebrain.
Pineal Glandon top of the midbrain behind the thalamus (thethird eye for fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and some birds)involves in circadian and circannual rhythms; possibly involves in maturation of sex organs.
Limbic System
(
Mammalian Brain)
  
Thalamusin the middle of the limbic systemrelays incoming information (except smell) to the appropriate part of the brain for further processing.
Hypothalamus, Pituitary Glandbeneath thalamusregulates basic biological drives, hormonal levels, sexual behavior, and controls autonomic functions such as hunger, thirst, and body temperature.
Optic Chiasmin front of the pituitary glandleft-right optic nerves cross-over point.
Septumadjacent to hypothalamusstimulates sexual pleasure
Hippocampuswithin the temporal lobemediates learning and memory formation.
Amygdalain front of the hippocampusresponsible for anxiety, emotion, and fear
Mammillary Body, Fornixlinked to the hippocampushave a role in emotional behavior, learning, and motivation.
Caudate Nucleus, Putamen, Globus Pallidus,Basal Ganglia (Striatum)outside the thalamusinvolves in movement, emotions, planning and in integrating sensory information
Ventricles and Central Canalfrom tiny central canal within the spinal cord to the enlarged hollows within the skull called ventriclesfills with cerebrospinal fluid for mechanical protection.
Cingulate Gyrusabove corpus callosumconcentrates attention on adverse internal stimuli such as pain, contains the feeling of self.
Corpus Callosumunder the cingulate gyrusis a bundle of nerve fibers linking the cerebral hemispheres, involve in language learning.
Forebrain
(
Human Brain)
  
Frontal Lobe
(Conscious Brain)
in front of the headcontrols voluntary movement, thinking, and feeling.
Prefrontal Cortexin front of the frontal lobeinhibits inappropriate actions, forms plans and concepts, helps focus attention, and bestows meaning to perceptions.
Parietal Lobein top rear of the headcontains the primary somatosensory area that manages skin sensation.
Occipital Lobein the back of the headcontains the visual cortex to manage vision.
Temporal Lobeon each side of the head above the templescontains the auditory cortex to manage hearing and speech.
continue to Human brain